A Good News Story: Close the Gap

Richard Wilkinson observes, “we had always regarded classification by social class as simply a proxy for the real determinants of health that we saw that we imagined were material factors – like diet and what you’re working with and what you’re exposed to at work and maybe housing, air pollution, things like that. Now it looks more and more like social status itself is an important determinant of health. There is now a growing realization that most health issues are caused, or worsened, by poverty and inequality.”1 In countries like the UK and America, people in richer areas can live up to 14 years longer than people in poor areas. Research shows health is responsive to changes in income, and that the death rates of the poor are more responsive to changes in income than the death rates of the rich are. Effective interventions would create a good news story.

Themistocles, concerned that the majority of the Greek allies wanted to retreat, sent a messenger to Xerxes to inform him that the Greek army was in disarray and with a prompt attack they might at once be destroyed. Shortly, Aristicidas appears and informs the council they are unable to sail away as the enemy surrounds them on all sides. To this Themistocles replies, “you have brought good news” as the Greeks were unwilling to fight are now compelled. The battle was therefore inevitable in the place which Themistocles, with the audacity of a genius, has forced on his fellow citizens. The Battle of Salamis was one of the most significant naval battles in ancient Greece, between the Greek city-states and their perpetual enemy, Persia. The defeat at Salamis shifted the war in Greece’s favor, and led to Persia’s ultimate demise. Many historians agree that the Battle of Salamis was the single most important battle of ancient Greece and potentially of all human history. This victory influenced the growth and preservation of Athenian democracy and influenced Western civilization’s core ideas of freedom and individual rights.

The ‘free marketplace’ is a grand illusion for those in power to promote in order to justify dominance over those who are less privileged. Today ‘positive self-image’ is linked to a fundamentalist (i.e. must not and hence can not be questioned) belief: the benefits of trickle-down economics of tax cuts for the rich creates well-paying jobs for the middle class The idea is simple: The more money the people on top make, the more the people below will benefit from the dripping down of that prosperity. The hidden agenda here, of course, is the rationalization of inequality. By linking the welfare of working-class Americans directly to the prosperity of the rich, the neoliberals protect the insulated interests of corporations and the wealthy without the fear of backlash. Society pays a price for inequality. There is an association between health inequality and the huge social-class differences in death rates between rich and poor, between well educated and badly educated, between people in rich and poor areas.

The myth of the market as an evolutionary device serves as an explanation and a justification for, the presence of competition in all parts of social activities. The market was replaced with competition as the defining character of human relations including redefining individuals as consumers. Freud described the reality principle, the ability to evaluate the external world and differentiate between it and the internal world. The reality principle strives to satisfy the id’s desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. In neoliberalism the reality principle is replaced by the performance principle. The performance principle presupposes particular forms of rationality for domination that stratifies society according to the competitive economic performance of its members. Domination is exercised by a particular group in order to sustain and enhance themselves in a privileged position. The neoliberal performance principle teaches us to conceive of social problems as personal problems – emphasizing individual responsibility while failing to address systemic state violence in all its manifestations – healthcare, education and the war on the poor.

Epigenetics is about integrating genes, the organism and the environment. From believing that our biological fates were written in our genes, we now recognize that the environment, and more specifically our perception of the environment, directly controls our behavior and genetic activity. Individuals are much more sensitive to exposures from their environment, diet and lifestyles than previously thought. Epigenetic marks or ‘imprinting’ affect gene expression without actually changing the DNA sequence. There is substantial evidence from animal and man demonstrating that both transient and more long-term epigenetic mechanisms have a role in the regulation of the molecular events. The dynamic nature of epigenetics means this is not written in stone – healthy eating, moderate exercise and minimizing stress will have a positive epigenetic effect.

Telomeres are the caps at the end of each strand of DNA that protect our chromosomes, like the plastic tips at the end of shoelaces. Without the coating, shoelaces become frayed until they can no longer do their job, just as without telomeres, DNA strands become damaged and our cells can’t do their job. For example, the immune system, which normally weakens as we age, is highly sensitive to shortening of telomeres. Many studies have shown that a group of highly stressed people have much shorter telomeres than less stressed people. Scientists believe that the key to understanding racial, ethnic and socioeconomic health inequalities lies in studying the connections between social conditions and biological mechanisms like telomeres.

It is now known that genetic change can occur much more quickly than previously thought, responding from messages coming from other genes, hormones, and from nutritional cues and learning. The news that the epigenome is highly sensitive and responsive to environmental influences, including toxic exposures, dietary factors, and behavioral impacts, serves to focus future state priorities. How we develop mentally and physically have a tremendous impact upon our inherent capabilities and our set of life options. Epigenetics explains how environmental factors can switch genes on and off, based on choices we make. As the environment can influence our genes, lifestyles can impact the expression of our genes. Early studies show an association between epigenetic marks (in the human genome) and socio-economic status.

Paul Piff observes, it’s really the people who feel subjectively lower on the social ladder or who are objectively poorer, who experience all the negative outcomes, whether it’s higher rates of obesity, or increased cardiovascular disease, or higher rates of depression. Inequality and differences in people’s levels of wealth shape the mind, shape the way people see the world and behave towards one another. Status, inequality, stratification, shape the basic things people do, like their tendencies to feel compassion, their tendencies to cooperate with others. A person’s levels of wealth, and their status relative to others in their society, shape their tendencies to prioritize themselves, feel entitled, to cooperate versus behave in self-interested ways, across a variety of different domains of social life.1

Wilkinson observes while the biggest effects of inequality are lower down in the social ladder, it looks as if increases in inequality are actually bad for the group as a whole. Simply, people on the bottom of the social ladder are affected more than people further up because inequality changes the whole social milieu. That social status itself was a really important determinant of health, was really confirmed from work on non-human primates. In these studies social status of non-primates was manipulated by moving animals between groups, and you could give them the same material conditions and feed them the same diets. Researchers saw that the stress effects of social status in those animals had remarkable parallels to social status changes under remarkably similar effects to what were observed associated with social status in human beings.

Social mobility isn’t actually randomly distributed across society; it’s actually concentrated in a particular subgroup, and in particular it’s concentrated among those who are already fairly high up in the hierarchy. Ranking systems are about whether we fight each other for access to basic necessities and status and power, while social status is recognizing each other’s need and share access that leads to friendship and reciprocity. Inequality pushes us away from the reciprocity towards competitive striving for personal, individual advantage, not recognizing the other’s needs. The fundamental issue is whether we fight each other for access to basic necessities, or whether we recognize each other’s need and share access. Ranking systems, which are about self-interest, and the sense of entitlement, get in the way of reciprocity and people coming together.

Neoliberal ideology today defines the social relationships of poor people and the attitude towards them that supports an economic system that creates inequality. Inequality is about dominance and looking after yourself, often at other people’s expense. While one finds the biggest effects of inequality are lower down in the social ladder, but it looks as if the vast majority of the population is adversely affected by increases in inequality. With each step up the inequality ladder, bigger income differences between rich and poor, the worse a country did in terms of life expectancy. Today’s trickle-down economics ensures the next generation in the workplace can not only expect to earn less than their parents, but are on track to enjoy poorer health. The emerging field of epigenetics suggests that by influencing the understanding of inequality it is possible to create a happy trickle-down effect.

Initially it was thought that differences in rates of disease had entirely material causes. Now we realize psycho-social factors mediated by chronic stress act as general vulnerability factors in health. Epigenetic risks explain how environmental factors can switch genes on and off, based on choices we make. We now realize we can change gene expression by the way we think about our lives and ourselves – epigenetic marks are reversible. To achieve the desired change we need to close the empathy gap between those who have and those who don’t. It is not only necessary to battle to close the empathy gap, but also the inequality gap. The resulting improvement in health is an important victory for the whole community. In particular, the substantial change in social status that occurs for the poor would be a good news story.

1 Paul Piff and Richard Wilkinson. What does inequality do to our bodies and minds? A social psychologist and an epidemiologist discuss (6 Aug 2014) http://ideas.ted.com/what-does-inequality-do-to-our-bodies-and-minds-a-social-psychologist-and-an-epidemiologist-discuss/

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Seeking Sources of Progress

In the 19th century Georg Wilhelm Hegel (1770-1831) developed a theory to explain historical development as a dynamic process. This not only enforces the concept that conflicts are not bad, but good for generating understanding. Hegel introduced a system to study history called ‘a dialectic’ – a progression in which each successive movement emerges as a solution to the contradictions inherent in the preceding movement with the development of freedom and the consciousness of freedom. The Hegelian dialectic consists of a thesis in which someone wants more control over a group of people. This activity would cause an antithesis or reaction from the people, such as, panic, anger or fear. The final stage would be the synthesis in which a group seeks sources of progress – a process that results in the synthesis or solution to the problem – that is very close to what that person or organization wanted to begin with.

Initially the Enlightenment was a world of alienated culture. It was a society completely lacking in honesty and sincerity, in which people survived by adopting artificial roles, making themselves agreeable to those with power and money, fawning on the rich, and using their intelligence only to be amusing and witty to each other. In such a world of razor-sharp wit and withering irony, anyone with serious beliefs and deeply held convictions will find themselves the butt of jokes and ridicule. Hegel noted both sides of the dispute emerged as a reaction against the materialistic world of culture, where social success meant more than any concern for the truth.

As a result, anyone dissatisfied with such frivolous and empty existence will tend to detach themselves from such a society and form a more serious community of their own. One such community would be those who seek in religious faith for those values and certainties, which are lacking in the social world. Those who seek to attain stable and certain truths through reason and rationality; science and logic would form another group. The philosophers of the French Enlightenment, Diderot, Voltaire, Rousseau, would be such a group. Hence the philosopher and the pious believer have much in common. The dispute between them will review, even further, the extent of their similarity. A pious Christian and an apostle of the new ideas of the Enlightenment, a devotee of humanist reason, represent the two parties to this discussion.

The Enlightenment regards religion as composed of superstition, prejudice and error claims Peter Benson. It sees the Christian world as divided into three classes: (1) the mass of naïve people who believe everything they are told, (2) an intellectual group, the priesthood, who teach doctrines they themselves often know to be untrue in order to preserve their own social status, (3) despotic political rulers for whom religion is a useful opium to keep the people quiet. This is the basis of the virulent attacks on the Church by the French Enlightenment thinkers.

Enlightenment sees itself on the side of universality, both universal truths and the universal availability of those truths to everyone. It therefore does not enter into argument with the corrupt priests, but appeals to the common humanity of the mass of the people, attempting to show them the error of the beliefs that have been foisted upon them. Enlightenment therefore appeals to a common level of consciousness between itself and the pious believer. Communication between the two groups is direct and immediate. The ideas of the Enlightenment diffuse into the mass of society and become part of what everyone is talking about. What becomes widespread are the new attitudes toward truth, the new methods of seeking and determining truth (through rational inquiry and observation rather than through authority). When it is a question of the actual content of these truths, the pious believer will defend the claims of the Church, but now using the methods of the Enlightenment to defend religious faith. Hence, for example, there will be archeological research into evidence for the Biblical stories, and philosophical attempts to prove the rationality of biblical beliefs.1

Marx states: “It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness”. By understanding the material conditions of man through history, Marx argues, man can come to understand his social and political conditions. Capitalism, and the competition it entailed, forced the members of society into two groups: workers (the proletariat) and capitalists (the bourgeoisie). The worker himself, valuable merely for his ability to earn wages, Marx writes, now sank “to the level of a commodity”. Marx claims that the political system reinforces such economic conditions, as the capitalists have the means to control government and construct power systems that favor this economic system. However, once members of a society become aware of its inadequacies, and the laws and institutions they had previously accepted unquestioningly were now experienced as fetters, they begin seeking sources of progress for change.2

In the 17th century the Church was the largest institution; while in the 21st century the corporation is the largest institution. Republicans love touting the benefits of trickle-down economics and are still doing it in the debate over tax cuts for the wealthy. The idea is simple: The more money the people on top make, the more the people below will benefit from the dripping down of that prosperity. The hidden agenda here, of course, is the rationalization of inequality. By linking the welfare of working-class Americans directly to the prosperity of the rich, the Republicans can protect the insulated interests of corporations and the wealthy without the fear of backlash. Neoliberal ideology dictates that essentially the best people to clean up the crisis are the same bankers and financiers who created it in the first place, since they clearly embody the best understanding of the shape of the crisis.

Trump installed the wealthiest cabinet ever, supposedly to meet the aspirations of his base – to serve the people instead of a political system that wants to serve itself. Steven Mnuchin, Secretary of Treasury, with his hands on the national tax policy, amassed a fortune during 17 years at Goldman Saks, is the consummate Wall Street insider. During his time running OneWest Bank his business oversaw thousands of home foreclosures in the aftermath of the subprime mortgage crisis. Wilbur Ross, Secretary of Commerce, a long-time critic of ‘bad trade deals’ and the decline of manufacturing jobs in America, is from one of the top 300 richest families who run America. Trump’s advisers belong to economic elite who preach neoliberal doctrines which they know to be untrue in order to preserve their own social status.

Efforts are generally made to look at things objectively. Objectively means that which is independent of any particular point of view in order for assumptions or preconceived notions not interfere with our interpretation of events. On the modern rational scheme, both science and morality requires a strictly impartial perspective. Knowing that no individual is fully capable of such impartiality or objectivity, we construct political decision making systems designed to compensate for the inevitable bias. This pivot point of modern politics, science and ethics is responsible for nullifying the individual point of view. Through the influence of money the oligarchs have re-introduced bias into the system. The harshest costs of modern economic practices fall upon ecosystems and populations with little current economic power or value, including generations not yet born. Today many question the notion of the existence of the American dream – whether there is enough progress in their lives.

The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels. Poverty is a key factor underlying whether these determinants of health can be obtained. However, the policy of minimal taxes and government continues to create a growing income gap between the wealthy and the rest of society – removing social mobility for most of society. Today’s dialectic would be the tension between those who believe minimal government and regulation provides the best opportunities for individuals to reach their full potential, and those who believe there should be a regulatory apparatus to provide the tools to be used to create greater equality.

To create a thesis it is necessary to bring two groups with essentially opposing views together. The thesis is economic and environment decisions should be made through the lens of the social determinants of health to counter inequity in the system. This activity will create anxiety with those who believe in neoliberal economics – if everyone works hard enough they will succeed, and failure is the result of character weakness. They seek to maintain the status quo. As a consequence of this conflict, a new and third view, the synthesis, arises. Most of the possibilities for a human economy already co-exist in our world; so the task is to build new combinations with a different emphasis, not to repudiate a caricature of the market in the name of a radical alternative. The synthesis or solution – seeking sources of progress – involves redistributive powers of the state to close the economic gap between the rich and the poor.

1 The Dialectics of Faith & Enlightenment (Dec 2016 / Jan 2017) https://philosophynow.org/issues/37/The_Dialectics_of_Faith_and_Enlightenment

2 Selections From: The Marx-Engels Reader (1972) nyu.edu

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Doubt And Critical Thinking In Elections

Rene Descartes claimed reasoning is an ability that all people have, and this ability that we all have is exactly what we need in order to learn about the world. We don’t need a special upbringing, education or religion. Descartes is the originator of Cartesian doubt – methodological skepticism about the truth of one’s beliefs – that any knowledge received through our senses could be false. If information is perceived incorrectly then certainty cannot be achieved. Although Descartes mistrusted the information received through the senses, he did believe that certain knowledge could be acquired by other means, arguing that the strict application of reason to all problems is the only way to achieve certainty. If all problems are reduced to their least sense dependent and most abstract elements, then objective reason can be put to work to solve the problem. Critical thinking requires the methological application of reason.

Isaac Newton (1642-1727) discovered the natural laws of motion, which provided the final piece to the puzzle, establishing the Copernican theory of the Earth revolving around the sun, introducing the spirit of individualism and the idea the study of human progress was at the centre of all things. During the following decades, his achievement was celebrated as the triumph of the modern mind over ancient and medieval ignorance. With the invention of mathematical physics by Newton many people suddenly realized that mathematics could explain the world. During this time a two-fold development in academia brought about a rapid democratization of scientific knowledge. The foundation of academies such as the Paris Academy and the Royal Society in London whose primary purpose was to do scientific research and report their conclusions to the public. The second major development was the rise in scientific journals. These new journals circulated to a wide audience that included many outside the scientific community. Scientific results were reported to an audience of non-specialists – some scientific tracts became best sellers.

Newtonian determinism explained the equilibrium of the free market system described by Adam Smith. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) developed and applied evolutionary theory to the study of society. In Spencer’s view progress was a direct consequence of adaptation. Can we doubt that individuals having an advantage, however slight, over others, would have the best opportunity to succeed? He believed that human society reflects the same evolutionary principles as biological organisms do in their development. Following a universal law, Spencer believed, social institutions such as economics can function without control. He replaced Darwin’s natural selection with survival of the fittest. His claim social laws are as deterministic as those governing nature supported his concept survival of the fittest, and allowed Spencer to believe that the rich and the powerful become so because they are better suited to the social and economic culture of the time.

Economic fundamentalists declared their victory over Keynesian economic theory as Thatcher’s and Reagan’s policies took their dogma mainstream. Hayek’s pupils continue defending this theology. This activity laid the groundwork for globalization. The communication strategy to advance the corporate agenda behind globalization was designed to reduce resistance to the process by making it seem both highly beneficial and unstoppable. There is also the psychology of the inevitable. The alleged inability of governments to halt the progress of globalization was widely perceived as being beyond human control, which further weakens resistance. Multinational corporations are responsible for the removal of traditional government accountability to a fixed population from much of politics. This creates a lack of ability of those affected by decisions to protect their legitimate rights and interests. The consequences of this activity in democratic countries affect the ability of elected leaders to make decisions in the interests of their people.

During the 1980s, school systems lowered educational standards to protect children from failure. This was driven by the belief that one must do whatever he can to achieve positive self-esteem. The world would be saved from crime, drug abuse and under-achieving through bolstering self-esteem. Rights replaced responsibilities. Self-criticism, self-denial, self-control, self-sacrifice were no longer in vogue. Self-expression, self-assertion, self-realization, and self-approval, which all blend into self-esteem, became important. Within the self-esteem movement embedded in the school system, young adults were encouraged to develop image rather than character. This lead to the attitude: “I have a right to my opinion, so my opinions are right.” The self-esteem movement created a significant population in the 21st century with an exaggerated sense of entitlement and the belief that the world owes them something. They feel justified in asserting themselves defending their perceived rights. This person rarely admits to ignorance and regards his intuition and knowledge superior to objective data.

There has been a strong anti-intellectualism among conservatives in the past twenty-five years. This includes nominating candidates ‘just like them’ which can mean someone who has no idea of what the world is like, just like them. This mindset supports anti-intellectualism with hostility and mistrust of intellect. Anti-intellects often see themselves as champions of the ordinary people and fighters for egalitarianism against elitism. Those who mistrust intellectuals will represent them as a danger to normality, suggesting that they are outsiders with little empathy for the common people. Experts and ‘science’ are the enemy – lumped together as ‘ivory tower intellectuals.’ In the world of the anti-intellectuals the common people are oppressed by the corrupt privileged elites. Anti-intellectuals pride themselves in not thinking, nor using reason. Anti-intellectuals do not value education as an intrinsic good, rather value it as a means. Education is viewed as necessary for getting a job or increasing one’s salary.

The anti-intellectual populist movement reaps significant advantages with the democratization of information. The Internet is flooded with all kinds of sites that have been created by self-appointed primary sources. But the downside is there is no possible way to parse out all the input. The Internet provides a powerful medium (opportunity) to share and communicate anti-intellectual ideas. Global corporations adopted disinformation programs perfected by the tobacco industry over the past fifty years. This includes the climate change denial tactics of the fossil fuel industry through the Internet. These tactics include introducing manufactured uncertainty by raising doubt about even the most indisputable scientific evidence, by setting up so-called independent front organizations to publically promote its desired message. Amazingly politicians and Internet commenters alike win arguments without any facts on their side. Barack Obama summed it up best, “You can ignore facts, but you cannot deny facts.”

For many of Trump’s supporters, the wealthiest cabinet ever is no problem as long as he gets rid of the smart people. This is part of the anti-intellectual backlash against technocrats, bookish intellectuals, and politically correct liberal elites who are indifferent to the struggles of the ‘forgotten men and women in middle America. This is fusion of anti-rationalization with the anti-intellectual. Far right populists within the Republican Party feed off Trump’s anti-intellectualism because they believe elite intellectuals are to blame for problems everywhere. Anti-rationalism is about the erosion of general knowledge and ignorance about the lack of knowledge – you don’t need to know things in the first place. Sound bites of presidential candidates reflect an aversion to complexity when communicating with the public. This can been seen in the types of answers politicians now provide to the public. The average length of a sound bite by a presidential candidate in 1968 was 42.3 seconds. Two decades later it was 9.8 seconds and continued to decline in subsequent elections.1 Today it has been supplanted by the 140-character Twitter burst.

In 17th century Europe the church was the dominant institution, and was the main place where ordinary people got their information and were handed down opinions on what was right or wrong. Any established church was an effective form of thought control. The corporation, the dominant institution of the 21st century, supports think tanks and foundations for such activities as studies to support neoliberal economics and data analysis on voting patterns. Trump perfected the ‘know nothing’ façade of the Republican party to directly appeal to white working-class communities that have a ‘long tradition of hostility towards knowledge.’2 The wealthiest cabinet ever assures that neoliberalism is alive and well in the corridors of the White House. Have no doubt neoliberalism serves the interest of financial capital and globalized elites in the redistribution of wealth upwards. The Age of Reason was a movement to introduce critical thinking to replace dogged adherence to established opinions and challenge the blind faith in institutions.

Effort is required today to ensure information is conclusive. Critical thinking is not a matter of accumulating information. It is based on evidence and logical reasoning. Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally about what to do or what to believe. It includes the ability to identify the relevance and importance of ideas. You must be able to understand the logical connection between ideas, and be able to reflect on the justification of one’s own belief and values. Critical thinking has been abandoned as a cultural value. In such a state, culture is driven by fear and emotion, not rational thinking. Anti-intellect, anti-science, smart money vs misinformed voters, is hardly a fair fight. But the recent election win offers compelling evidence that the survival of the fittest remains an unshakable truth even in American life. There is no doubt anti-intellectualism can be a component of winning an election.

1 Blake, Brian (01 Jan 1998) In Their Own Words: Newspaper Sound bite Lengths in the 1956 and 1996 Presidential Elections http://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1102&context=sigm

2 Raphael T.J. (2 Aug 2016) A policy expert explains how anti-intellectualism gave rise to Donald Trump. https://www.pri.org/stories/2016-08-02/policy-expert-explains-how-anti-intellectualism-gave-rise-donald-trump

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Freedom Exercised As A Means to an End

Hegel developed a philosophy of action in which the spirit is always active in the search of some aim, in realizing one’s potential or self-actualization. Hegel believed history is a progressive realization of freedom. The concept of freedom is one which Hegel thought of very great importance, indeed, he believed it to be the central concept of human history. Hegel’s concept of freedom can best be regarded as the answer to a problem – the problem of how a man can be free in a universe which is governed by necessary laws. You must find your own point in history, claims Hegel, and start to reflect on yourself in relation to the world. When asking searching questions of yourself, realize that freedom resides not in the brain, but in the traditions of critical thought and skeptical reason. Today we realize that true freedom is a means to an end, not an end in and of itself.

Freedom doesn’t exist as the objective, it exists because there is another objective to obtain, and freedom is the means to obtain it. But what about when freedom is an end in, and of itself? When you have no end and make freedom the ultimate goal, anything goes. What are the consequences? The general premise would be not to use one’s talents and abilities to share with others, or make something that makes a difference. However this approach enslaves you to organizational practice, to careers and of course to the almighty dollar. In this system we are told what to consume, what is popular to ascribe to, give in to your passions – in return, it is supposed to be liberating. These things are the antithesis of freedom. Compliance to all of this that was supposed to set you free, has actually left you in chains and hurting.

Julius Evola claims freedom and equality are tools of manipulation, and after the movement leaders get what they want, they’ll toss you aside. Evola explains, “Practically speaking, it is only a revolutionary weapon: freedom and equality are the catchwords certain social strata or groups employed in order to undermine other classes and to gain preeminence; having achieved this task, they were quickly set aside.”1 Traditionalists believe that modernization be considered an anomaly in the history of mankind. Social life must be governed by ‘traditions,’ the forgetting of which brings about degeneracy. The problems of today, they claim, are the consequences of modern music, drugs, sexual egalitarianism that injured society, specifically marriage, the family and relations between the sexes. Traditionalism provides the ideological cement for the alliance of anti-democratic forces in post-Soviet Russia.

Friedrich Hayek described the connection between economic control and totalitarianism: “The economic freedom which is the prerequisite of any other freedom cannot be the freedom from economic care which the socialist promise us and which can be obtained only by relieving the individual at the same time the necessity and the power of choice, it must be the freedom of our economic activity which, with the right choice, inevitably carries the risk and responsibility of that right.” The economic elite point out, there is a threat to other freedoms with any reduction to economic freedom. An essential attribute of the good life is that people enjoy not just a range of personal freedoms, but a voice in public affairs. The outcome of individual economic freedom can be great inequality, which hollows out realistic notions of democracy.

Kant observed that man’s capacity to reason was not his most important quality. Rather, it is the capacity of free choice which all men share, no matter how refined their reason. Kant’s democratic sensibility, however, is not based on the interests of the common man, but on the common man’s moral worth and moral dignity. Democracy can be defined as the free and equal right of every person to participate in a form of government. However, when it comes to actual choice there are a limited number of candidates, hence only certain choices. Karl Popper claimed democracy is representative and not directly participatory. One’s only role is to judge and dismiss the government, a device to protect ourselves against the misuse of power. People never have any real power over politics. The best one can achieve is to determine which of a few candidates will exercise political rule over them. Democracy masks the true source of power in the hands of the few.

When democracy is an end in itself your vote matters more than who you vote for. In this case it does not matter how informed you are. What matters is that you participate. If truth is not knowable, then all should vote. The foundation of this perspective is agnosticism that means that truth is not knowable. Facts can be disputed such that no decision can be made about their veracity. Then it does not matter what one’s opinion is because we cannot determine what is real anyways. Hence all opinions are equal because there are no independent criteria for truth. In fact it is difficult to achieve a neutral opinion as the media and government have an incredible ability to mislead people which, in turn, leads to people having incorrect beliefs and make incorrect decisions. Currently democracy is treated as an end in itself and we must deal with the tension between freedom and necessity.2

It is time to end partisan gerrymandering Obama said: “we have to end the practice of drawing our congressional districts so that politicians can pick their voters, and not the other way around.” A gerrymandering of congressional districts, completed six years ago, sought to secure a Republican House majority for years to come by packing Democratic voters into fewer, often urban and minority districts and giving Republican candidates comfortable majorities in the ones they control. But those tailor-made districts yielded a new crop of hard-right, often uncompromising Republican members of Congress, running safely in mostly white, older and rural districts. Composed of nearly 40 of the most committed ideologues in the House, the Freedom Caucus has a simple mission: to get GOP leadership to deliver on the extreme, anti-government and social-conservative rhetoric that nearly all Republicans spout to get elected.

Policy details were lacking during Donald Trump’s campaign, but there were hints of a disturbing agenda on immigration, healthcare, gun control and women’s rights. His campaign’s constantly-evolving views – often championed as a way for Trump to use unpredictability to cut better deals for the nation – made it difficult to glean a political agenda, or even a set of clear, core policy views ahead of his presidency. Why would people who benefit from Obamacare in general – and its Medicaid expansion specifically – vote for a man who vowed to destroy it? Some anecdotal reports have suggested that people simply didn’t understand that the benefits they received were a result of the Affordable Care Act. Others elected Trump to change America and to serve the people instead of a political system that wants to serve itself. Their main hope was that he not pander to liberal interests and that he will help balance the budget, and help the economy remain strong.

Democracy treated as an end in itself ensures economic inequality is now part and parcel of power exercised in and through the state. Democracy as a means to an end is the view that voting in itself is not sufficient. People must become aware of what is really going on and understand and participate in political rule through mass participation. An informed opinion means more than an uninformed opinion. The philosophy that forms the foundation of this perspective is empiricism, which is the view that truth and reality are knowable. If truth is knowable, then all efforts to engage and inform the majority must occur. If the historic inequalities between those in power and those who are ruled are to be eventually overcome we must become more knowledgeable. When democracy is treated as a means to an end in itself, it results in the best decisions and social equality.2

What is freedom? Like many important questions it is something that will undeniably leave us with more questions than answers. Freedom is a balancing act. Doing what you want sounds a lot like freedom, but doing what you want does not always have an end that is freeing. If freedom has no limits, a potential consequence could be anarchy. But when you find true freedom, we realize that like most things that are good, it is not a drastic measure, rather something moderate. For most, we must realize that freedom gives us the right to do at all times what is right, even sometimes at the expense of what we want. Freedom is best exercised as a means to an end, but the end must be one that gives people the choice to make the best possible decision to reach their full potential.

1 Buhls, Thomas. Freedom Is a Code Word for Degeneracy. http://www.tradyouth.org/2013/09/freedom-is-codeword-for-degeneracy/

2 Is Democracy an End in Itself or a Means to an End? file:///Users/greghorsman/Downloads/Is%20Democracy%20an%20End%20in%20Itself%20or%20a%20Means%20to%20an%20End%20%20Articles-5.htm

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The Nature and Importance of American Liberties

The American conservative identifies with limited government and regulations, and embraces the Declaration of Independence, “that all men are created equal, and they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights.” This keeps conservatives united around a set of concrete political and philosophical goals that every layman can understand. The Constitution, although less explicit, recognizes the liberties discussed in the Declaration and protects them as almost sacred. The Constitution’s Bill of Rights also makes religious liberty our “first freedom,” reflecting the Founders’ view that the free exercise of religion would have a positive effect on the workings of government. Today many conservatives defending liberty now call themselves constitutional conservatives. In reaction to a perceived crisis of our time conservatives are searching for the answer to why and how America went wrong. When struggling to protect their families and communities, to save the unborn, and defend marriages, radical solutions become tempting.

Donald Trump, the shape shifter, went from a boasting, bullying, insulting, insensitive candidate to someone who cared about the issues of the common person. He sold the image of America in decline which only he alone could make great again. This means curtailing immigration and tearing up trade deals like NAFTA. Trump connected with those workers who felt they had been left behind. In his inaugural speech Trump declared: “The jobs left, and the factories closed … the wealth, strength and confidence of our country has disappeared over the horizon.” Steve Bannon, who is Trump’s chief strategist, insists that America is suffering from a crisis in capitalism. He claims the problem began with the counter revolution of the 60s and 70s. Baby boomers rejected the traditional ‘Judeo-Christian’ values of their parents. It was the Judeo-Christian values that created the enlightened capitalism that made America great following World War II.

In Edmond Burke’s view the basis of a successful society should not be abstract notions like human rights, social justice or equality. Rather societies work best when traditions that have been shown to work are passed from generation to generation. Bannon claims baby boomers abandoned the tried and true values of their parents such as naturalism and religion in favour of new abstractions such as pluralism, equaltarianism and secularism. He believes this created the weakness of capitalism in 2008  that spun profits out of speculation rather than invest their profits in domestic jobs and business. This developed the socialism of the very wealthy and led to the welfare state of the poor and the suffering of the middle class. Some have defined traditionalism as ‘ordered liberty.’ Traditionalists claim there are limits to human reason which must be paid heed or a society may suffer serious damage.

The Traditionalist school of thought rejects the modernist assumption of progressive human evolution, regarding it as the exact opposite of how the universe functions. For Traditionalism, all things begin at their zenith and gradually degenerate, through a series of stages, into mere shadows of their former glory, a pattern no less true of human beings. Evola identified presuppositions that led to the decline of civilization. Social life must be governed by ‘Tradition,’ the forgetting of which brings about decadence. All that relates to our time is darkened by this egalitarianism and decadence of modern music and jazz, drugs, modern art, and society in general, specifically marriage, the family, and the relations between the sexes. Traditionalists see their approach as a justifiable ‘nostalgia for the past’. Recently  Steve Bannon stressed the importance of Trump’s moves to begin a “deconstruction of the administrative state” by appointing individuals from the private sector to key economic Cabinet positions who will help strip down federal regulations.

Part of radical traditionalism is the decline narrative and the revival of localism or return to older philosophies of education. Trump claims he inherited a disaster – the trade deals need to be renegotiated in favour of American workers. The Republican Congress, under the control of the neoliberals, supports gutting the EPA and dumping more toxins from coal plants into river ways to support industry and the ‘creation’ of new jobs. In addition Trump describes the need to expand the groups of immigrants to be deported – putting him in opposition to essential civil liberties that have been guaranteed in the past. Many Republicans argue that religious freedom is under unprecedented attack in the United States. To ensure the country is rebuilt around Judeo-Christian values it is necessary to stop the influx of people who do not believe in them by rallying around nationalism.

Betsy DeVos is a member of one of the wealthiest families in the world. To the extent this is allowed by the Constitution, the agenda of the DeVos family foundations is to re-Christianize America and to replace the melting pot or gorgeous mosaic of the current secular society with an imagined America of a hundred years ago: white-dominated, Christian-dominated, traditional in values and orientation. However, voucher programs have led to disastrous results across the country. In Milwaukee, voucher-funded private school students consistently score below public school students. In Cleveland, less than 20% of voucher-funded private school students even reach basic proficiency levels in math and reading. DeVos says she wants every family to have ‘educational choice,’ the umbrella term used to describe efforts to privatize education by, among other methods, installing school voucher programs, which divert public funding to private and religious schools.

Instead of viewing our times in the light of history, traditionalists review history in the light of our times. They look back over the past, pick and choose events that conform to a preconceived notion of ‘what went wrong.’ History does not work that way – nations are shaped by great statesmen and unforeseen events. On occasion, the traditionalist approach actually rewrites history. It is important to understand that history is not linear. At the turn of the 20th century, Woodrow Wilson and other Progressives rejected concepts of natural law, natural rights, and social contract. Wilson observed, “No doubt we were meant to have liberty, but each generation must form its own conception of what liberty is.”

President Trump says his goal is to make the country ‘safe again’, claiming, “We will not allow people into our country those who are looking to do harm to our people.” He wants specific surveillance of targeted communities and databases on people coming from certain countries. He knows that the majority of American people want to get their communities back – safe from terrorists and drugs. Trump’s conception is that the President has unchallengeable power to implement the agenda he believes the people elected him for. Trump attacks the press who he believes is in opposition to him implementing his agenda. His charge of “FAKE NEWS” is meant to delegitimize accurate reporting that makes him look bad. Many see this as suppression of freedom of speech and an attack on the Fourth Estate.

Traditionalism is skeptical about the “self-evident truths” that America is based on. They look back to a more virtuous foundation than the Founding – a tradition innocent of modernity’s “concretes” especially the concrete that the church and state can be separated. Constitutional grounding of the American regime on ‘religious neutral’ ideas such as natural rights, supports individual rights to promote sexual autonomy, leads to inevitable decline from natural law liberalism into modern liberalism, which they believe unwittingly makes today’s moral anarchy inevitable. Radical traditionalists say we must begin again.The West, Bannon believes, is in the midst of a crisis of faith. We need enlightened capitalism – capitalism once more moored in Judeo-Chritian beliefs. This would reduce the ongoing conflicts in the country that are basically due to major cultural differences.

The problem of course is that the modern order was born precisely because life in these societies was so intolerable to people of conscience. Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong. One cannot be complacent because of the importance of American liberties, the reality of which depends upon an informed electorate rather than an nation that has been fed a diet of lies from the Trump apparatus, and because of the timidity and irresponsibility of a Congress that is failing in its constitutional role as a co-equal branch of government to serve as a check and balance to the Executive Branch. One wants to be able to say to their children, to others who look back in history, and to ourselves that we took a stand for our country, for our most fundamental shared values, and most importantly, for our moral values, as reflected in the best of religious and humanitarian traditions.2

Pre-modern Europe did not necessarily attribute liberties to individuals but to social relations and communities. Since Hegel (1770–1831) the concept has often been categorized in a threefold manner: moral liberties (freedom of moral choice, such as freedom of conscience), civil liberties (freedom of individuals as constituting members of a civil society, such as freedom of speech) and political liberties (freedom of individuals in relation to the state, such as freedom of political association), all being attributes of individuals. Freedom is not a matter of autonomy or choosing whatever we happen to want. Rather, to be free is to live a certain mode of life. Liberty is violated when someone else interferes with it. People of conscience are people who not only love our country and the values upon which our Constitution rests, but who strongly believe that our actions, and the actions in which our country engages, should be consistent with our most basic moral values. Individuals of good conscience must take a stand, remembering the US has, in the past, embraced progress, pledging to do better, striving for the higher moral ground.

1 Gill, Nathan. (20 Aug 2015) What’s Conservative about Radical Traditionalism? http://www.thepublicdiscourse.com/2015/08/14588/

2 Anderson, Ross C. (30 May 2008) People of Conscience, Challenge the President! https://www.thenation.com/article/people-conscience-challenge-president/

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The Existential Threat And Lying To Yourself

Existentialism is a philosophy that emphasizes individual existence, freedom and choice. It is the view that humans define their own meaning in life, and try to make rational decisions despite existing in an irrational universe. An existential threat is a threat to a people’s existence or survival. If you wrestle with big questions involving the meaning of life, you may be having an existential crisis. Although the word existence was known in the 14th century, most people wrote about philosophy in Latin at that time and used the word existentia. The verb exist waited another couple of centuries to appear, not being known before Shakespeare used it in the mouth of King Lear, who swore to disown poor Cordelia ‘by all the operation of the orbs/ From whom we do exist and cease to be’. It’s the threat of ceasing to be that worries people now.

Existentialism believes that individuals are entirely free and must take personal responsibility for themselves (although with this responsibility comes angst, a profound anguish or dread). It therefore emphasizes action, freedom and decision as fundamental, and holds that the only way to rise above the essentially absurd condition of humanity (which is characterized by suffering and inevitable death) is by exercising our personal freedom and choice. Existentialism is more a reaction against traditional philosophies, such as Determinism, that seek to discover an ultimate order and universal meaning in the structure of the observed world. It asserts that people actually make decisions based on what has meaning to them, rather than what is rational. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche were interested in people’s concealment of the meaninglessness of life and their use of diversion to escape from boredom. Nietzsche further contended that the individual must decide which situations are to count as moral situations.

Kierkegaard saw rationality as a mechanism humans use to counter their existential anxiety, their fear of being in the world. Kierkegaard also stressed that individuals must choose their own way without the aid of universal, objective standards. Thus, most Existentialists believe that personal experience and acting on one’s own convictions are essential in arriving at the truth, and that the understanding of a situation by someone involved in that situation is superior to that of a detached, objective observer. According to Camus we live in an absurd universe, in which meaning is not provided by the natural order, but rather can be created by human actions and interpretations. Sartre saw rationality as a form of “bad faith,” an attempt by the self to impose structure on a fundamentally irrational and random world of phenomena (“the other”). This bad faith hinders us from finding meaning in freedom, and confines us within everyday experience.1

Friedrich Nietzsche observed, “Sometimes people don’t want to hear the truth because they don’t want their illusions destroyed.” Even what we believe we see with our own eyes is made up from memory. When referring to blind spots in our vision that we do not notice, much of what you see ‘out there’ is actually manufactured ‘in here’ by your brain. Malleable memory, the brain filling in gaps in vision, and the biggest culprit, defense mechanisms, as well as the desire to seek pleasure and avoid pain leading to an implicit preference toward a lie, should at least contribute to one realizing thinking cannot be trusted. People want to hear what they want to hear. When two candidates are running and one of them tells the truth and the other says what the public wants to hear, the one who says what the public wants to hear wins the election.

There is not one big reason Trump won. His election promises represented an appeal to popular resentment, to so-called herd instincts. Donald Trump made a string of promises during his long campaign to be the 45th president of the United States. Taking back control of immigration included banning all Muslims entering the US and building a wall along the border with Mexico. He echoed Republicans attacking Obamacare, saying the law imposes too many costs on business, describing it as a “job killer” and decrying the reforms as an unwarranted intrusion into the affairs of private businesses and individuals. Under his ‘America first’ doctrine in January, 2017 the president promises his plans will create 25 million new jobs in the next decade. Trump claimed, “We will bring back our jobs … our borders … our wealth, and … our dreams.”

Donald Trump is an authoritarian, we can all agree on that. He proclaims it at every opportunity. He’s selected some of the most ridiculously hardline authoritarians for his administration. Vladimir Putin’s authoritarian style may excite Trump and his supporters, but it’s hardly a quality that would make a good president. However, that’s the strength Trump admires, the willingness to achieve your own ends no matter how much harm you might do to others. Trump may claim (falsely) that he opposed the Iraq War from the beginning, and periodically express skepticism about overseas adventures. But that won’t bother most Republicans, because no candidate has ever fetishized the conservative brand of strength more than he does. Pollsters have asked for decades whether voters consider candidates to be strong leaders, and their answers correlate highly with their choice for president.

Donald Trump is unique in that responsibility washes over him and into the shower drain like a layer of dirt; he is devoid of it even in personal interaction. The only rational explanation of his behavior is the term extreme individualism. In Trump’s mind there are winners and losers. His basic issue over several decades has been bad deals – bad deals in defending allies who he feels do not pay enough for their defense and bad trade deals. Like any business owner or high level executive, he intends to issue orders expecting them to be carried out. By invoking a return to an imaginary past and ignoring reality, Trump is putting at risk a sustainable future, not just for America and its economy, but for the very survival of civilization. There are very pressing threats to human survival that can only be addressed with clear-eyed realism. Seeking to make America great while risking destroying the world is hardly a viable approach to our future.

Ultimately, there are only two primary political belief systems, which are poorly captured by any label such as liberal, conservative, republican, or democrat. The two, fundamental political belief systems are: In the first system, the belief is that there are circumstances people are born into which largely determine their choices and outcomes, and that each of us is fundamentally responsible for helping others overcome the negativity associated with their disadvantages. Because of this, the happiness and suffering of every person is inexorably tied to that of every other person. The second belief system declares every person has his/her own choice to fail or succeed, and that those who suffer are doing so in some part due their own personal failure. As such, it is not the moral obligation of those who chose correctly to sacrifice in order to help those who chose poorly.2

One group thinks that those who are in positions of advantage are there by way of good fortune alone, and that they therefore are indebted to society, and humanity, as a whole. Nietzsche named the original system of social control in small communities, the morality of outcomes (of actions), the consequences of one’s conduct being the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or the wrongness of that conduct. This means that the morality of an action is dependent on both the intentions of the action and its consequences. The other group feels it was their individual choices that yielded their success, apart from any advantages they may have had, and that they therefore owe nobody anything – least of all those who made poor choices when they should have made the right ones. For this group, determinism rules out free will. Existentialism is a complete rejection of Determinism.

Existentialist thought concerns itself with trying to understand fundamentals of the human condition and its relation to the world around us. Existentialism puts special emphasis on personal choices and on the problems and peculiarities that face individual human beings. As a result, meaning is not provided by the natural order, but rather can be created, however provisionally and unstably, by human beings, actions and interpretations. For Nietzsche, the celebration of a man like Trump was the inevitable result of a democratic culture built on the virtues of ignorance and self-fulfillment. For Nietzsche, culture has to do with overcoming yourself, while anything that is static and non-moving is the death of culture. All this nostalgia and looking back (turning to a traditionalist world view) you see from Trump supporters is poisonous to culture for Nietzsche because it stunts any possibility of progress.3

How does one respond to this existential threat? It is necessary to resist this regression into a petty, fragmented brand of politics rooted in resentment and fear. There is a need for a morality of unintended consequences. It isn’t necessary to buy into the big lie all of the time. You can step back from thinking. As Eckhart Tolle says, “Rather than being your thoughts and emotions, be the awareness behind them.” Question from where your thinking arises. How do these thoughts or feelings relate to your history; what is this event tapping into? What is the root of this feeling? In what ways am I lying to myself? These are questions that can begin the process of seeing reality more clearly.4  This will counter the intentional blurring of the relationship between proposed facts and reality that dominates the present political climate.

1 The Basics of Philosophy http://www.philosophybasics.com/branch_existentialism.html

2 Miessler, Daniel. (8 Sept 2009) Free Will vs. Determinism as the Core of Political Disagreement https://danielmiessler.com/blog/free-will-vs-determinism-as-the-core-of-political-disagreement/#gs.qpGGL7o

3 Illing, Sean. (20 Dec 2016) What Nietzsche’s philosophy can tell us about why Brexit and Trump won http://www.vox.com/conversations/2016/12/20/13927678/donald-trump-brexit-nietzsche-democracy-europe-populism-hugo-drochon

4 Berry, William. (23 March 2013) The Big Lie https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-second-noble-truth/201403/the-big-lie

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On Understanding Fear And Change

Leaders know that the difficulty of overcoming resistance to change, the inertia, the political blockages and entrenched interests in the status quo, is all altered by a crisis. Donald Trump understands this and his chilling language reflects this. During his inaugural address, Trump painted a dark dystopian picture of a United States in decline. He declared “This American carnage stops here and stops right now,” appealing to voters emotions rather than their intellect. A crisis alters this calculation. It lowers the cost of change while also making clearer the price of not changing. This fear brings people together to face an external threat, and political differences are temporarily set aside. Inertia is lessened when people understand that the status quo will not stand. The idea stands a better chance. That’s what economist Paul Romer meant when he said that a crisis is a terrible thing to waste, and it would be a pity not to take advantage of it.

Nietzsche insists that there are no rules for human life, no absolute values, no certainties on which to rely. If truth can be achieved at all, it can come only from an individual who purposefully disregards everything that is traditionally taken to be ‘important.’ Nietzsche was obsessed with the idea that the people of his time unquestioningly assumed that pity and altruism are always ‘good,’ when in fact the truth is much more complex – value and truth were always relative to the individual doing the supposing. Nietzsche thought excessive pity could cripple the subject who felt it, and that an altruistic attitude could actually be quite destructive, if one had the hubris to assume that one actually knew what was best for another person. He went as far as to question the value of truth seeking as an activity – man manages to live only because of immense self-deception.

Nietzsche claims there are no moral facts, and there is nothing in nature that has value in itself. Rather, to speak of good or evil is to speak of human illusions, of lies according to which we find it necessary to live. He tells us “man needs to supplement reality by an ideal world of his own creation.” Knobe and Leiter take the unusual step of seeing to what degree recent experimental findings in psychology support either Nietzsche or Kant. They have little difficulty in showing that Nietzsche is largely vindicated. For the most part we are not rational doers: the view that we choose our actions from a standpoint of deliberative detachment seems to be a Kantian myth. There appears to be no general accordance between our attitudes and beliefs, and our actions – in effect, we say one thing, but do another. Rather than acting for reasons, we tend to act, and invent reasons afterwards.1

In 1988, Rupert Wilkinson, who has taught at universities in America and the UK, published a fascinating book, The Pursuit of American Character. This book is a succinct explanation of the underlying forces that drive American political behavior. Like all cultures, the unique history of the US has ‘set Americans up’ in how they approach critical issues no matter what the time period in their history or the particular problems they are facing. Wilkinson identified four fears that not only have been present from the very founding of the Republic, but are so basic that they are virtually synonymous with it: (1) The Fear of Being Owned, (2) The Fear of Falling Away, (3) The Fear of Winding Down, (4) The Fear of Falling Apart. Each one of these characteristics has been in play this past election cycle in the US.2

The Fear of Being Owned historically relates to the escape from the centuries old tyranny of “evil European Kings and despots” and explains why the attacks on Obamacare is so prolonged and vicious. The government is the perceived problem rather than the big insurance companies manipulating the markets. The Fear of Falling Away is not just a vision – its America’s raison d’etre. It is the fear of losing the original holy vision of a “City on a Hill” that the Founding Fathers gave Americans. It is the vision of an America that can do no wrong because She is the font of all that is good and right with the world. The Republicans fear that in looking to the future, President Obama, and subsequently Hillary Clinton, wanted to take our communities away from America’s glorious past.

The Fear of Winding Down – is the fear that Americans will lose the unbridled and unbounded energy and optimism that made America great. This fear is also so basic that it’s wrapped up with all kinds of ideologies, e.g., capitalism. Thus, if President Obama would have only relaxed the constraints on American business, then we “could get this high-energy economy going once again.” The Fear of Falling Apart is the fear that we are tearing ourselves apart because of all our internal conflict, such as, black versus white, etc. Therefore, in contrast to the ‘weak leadership of Obama or Clinton, we need a strong leader who understands what America is really all about.’

As Edmund Burke (1729-1797) who fiercely opposed the French Revolution wrote, “No passion so effectually robs the mind of all its powers of acting and reasoning as fear.” Today we are vulnerable to the politics of fear. The politics of fear is when leaders (or candidates for leadership) use fear as a driving or motivating factor for the people, to get them to vote a particular way, allow excesses in spending, or accept policies they might otherwise abhor. It’s banking on the fact that presenting people with an alleged threat to their well-being will elicit a powerful emotional response that can override reason and prevent a critical assessment of these policies. As author Mark Vernon has noted “… the politics of fear plays on an assumption that people cannot bear the uncertainties associated with [risk]. Politics then becomes a question of who can better deliver an illusion of control.

While Republicans perpetually talk about getting tough on crime, they actually need it to get and stay in power. Pitting the lower middle class and poor against the really poor, who are simultaneously seen as responsible for and the victims of crime, is the way the economic elite divert attention away from the fact that under Republicans, there is less support for unemployment, income and social inequality – all of which lead to crime. Trump was for the little guy during the election, but once in office he surrounded himself with an economic elite who preach neoliberal doctrines which they know to be untrue in order to preserve their own social status. It’s not enough for progressives to guarantee that they won’t screw up and lose today’s hearts and minds, they must realize that we don’t learn with our concious minds alone.

We will not resolve communication challenges through appeals to so-called rational policies and thinking alone. When Clinton said Trump is dangerous, all people heard was the world is dangerous, regrettably it played into the message of chaos. Trump cultivates our sense of vulnerability. While his overall policies appear to lack a formulated objective, the cumulative impact of the politics of fear is to reinforce society’s consciousness of vulnerability. The more powerless we feel the more we are likely to be paralyzed by fear. Personhood is the way people understand and relate to each other that contributes towards possessing certain capacities, and how one relates to others. The precondition for effectively countering the politics of fear is to challenge the personhood with the state of vulnerability. The human imagination possesses a formidable capacity to engage and learn from the crisis it faces. In this process an alternate choice is defined by our capacity to be resilient, and to reject our perceived vulnerability.

Let us look at Wilkinson’s four fears through this new lens of resilience: The Fear of Being Owned – the vulnerability of democratic growth in the US thus comes not primarily from external threats or from internal subversion from the left or right, but rather from oligarchs and their proxies who substantially impact US elections. The Fear of Falling Away is the fact the ‘City on the Hill’ is no longer that beacon that everyone one the world could look to for what is right. The Fear of Winding Down deals with the increasing economic inequality between the rich and the rest of society that reduces the opportunity for everyone to reach their full potential. The Fear of Falling Apart – neoliberal capitalism has nothing to do with democracy as justice is now linked to a market logic that divorces itself from social cost. It is necessary to address state violence in all its manifestations – healthcare, the education system, in addition to police – to ensure racial equality.

The Trump administration presently goes from one crisis of its own creation to another that his administration handles disastrously. Eventually he will run into a crisis that is not of his own making and based on evidence presently in front of us it is extremely difficult to be confident he will be able to handle it effectively. The potential for this creates a great deal of fear in the community. We already know the financial elite has a plan to blame Trump for the next financial crisis. Progressives must seize the opportunity and take advantage of this crisis to influence change. Now is the time to organize workers to participate in the next election. It would be a pity not to take advantage of it.

1 Rodger Cadwall. (Feb/Mar 2017) Nietzsche and Morality https://philosophynow.org/issues/70/Nietzsche_and_Morality

2 The Republicans’ Masterful and Insidious Prey on America’s Founding Fears (6 April 2012) https://mitroff.net/2012/04/06/the-republicans-masterful-and-insidious-prey-on-americas-founding-fears/

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The American Tragedy

Greek tragedy was a popular and influential form of drama performed in theatres across ancient Greece from the late 6th century BCE. Because the festival was held in honor of Dionysus, it was held at the end of March when all the grapes had fermented into wine. The presentation took the form of a contest between three playwrights, who presented their works on three successive days. The plays were judged on the day by a panel. The tragic hero’s powerful wish to achieve some goal inevitably encounters limits, usually those of human frailty (flaws in reason, hubris, society), the gods (through oracles, prophets, fate), or nature. Aristotle says that the tragic hero should have a flaw and/or make some mistake. Focus is on psychological and ethical attributes of characters, rather than physical and sociological. The main goal of the festivals remained true to the original Dionysian purpose: catharsis.

Performed in an open-air theatre such as that of Dionysos in Athens and seemingly open to all of the male populace the plot of a tragedy was mainly constructed from Greek mythology or history, which we must remember were often a part of Greek religion. The aim of tragedy, Aristotle writes, is to bring about a “catharsis” of the spectators – to arouse in them sensations of pity and fear, and to purge them of these emotions so that they leave the theater feeling cleansed and uplifted, with a heightened understanding of the ways of gods and men. This catharsis is brought about by witnessing some disastrous and moving change in the fortunes of the drama’s protagonist. Both the audience and performers were able to purge their emotions during the course of the festivals, through the group reaction to the events onstage, thus achieve catharsis.1

By the early 400s B.C., Greeks had come to believe that the polis (the Greek city-state or community) was the perfect form of government, so its laws and customs were perfect guidelines for human behavior. But the laws of a city could not cover all of the rules. In some areas, the rules of life were uncertain. It was these ‘gray areas’ that became the subject of tragic plays. Writers tried to explore these areas to help other Greeks understand the rules governing the human condition more fully. Playwrights served the city by examining the work of fate in human life and the kinds of actions that would bring a bad fate. Tragedy centers on the action of a main character or protagonist. He is a person of many outstanding talents and achievements. But despite his merits, he also possesses a hamartia, a tragic flaw; a character fault or blind spot that prevents him from realizing that he has human limitations.

Events occur that cause this flaw to emerge and grow until the protagonist commits an act of hubris. He violates the natural, moral limits placed on human action. When he does, the gods step in and inflict nemesis, punishment on him (divine retribution), thus illustrating that the gods are just and that such immoral acts will bring divine retribution. They viewed fate as just by definition because it is part the world order. It did not have to conform to human standards of fairness or rightness. Besides, the main point of tragedy was that man could not resist his fate. In making that point, tragedy served two purposes. Intellectually, it simply informed the audience that order exists, and humans could not change or resist it. Emotionally, it instilled intense fear and pity at this fact. The deep emotion produced a catharsis or cleansing, not unlike that produced by participating in the mysteries of Dionysus.

The elections of Margaret Thatcher in 1979 and Ronald Reagan in 1980 can be viewed as inaugurating the formal period of neoliberal economic policy dominance at the state level. A financial elite set in motion a process to reinvent government and have the market to serve as a model for structuring all social relations. The idea is simple: The more money the people on top make, the more the people below will benefit from the dripping down of that prosperity, so-called trickle-down economics. The hidden agenda here, of course, is the rationalization of inequality. By linking the welfare of working-class Americans directly to the prosperity of the rich, the neoliberals protect the insulated interests of corporations and the wealthy without the fear of backlash. Inequality is not only the natural state of market economics from the perspective of neoliberal ideology, but it is believed to be one of its strongest motor forces for progress.

Neoliberals treat the market as natural, which allows natural science metaphors to be integrated into the neoliberal narrative. The market was replaced with competition as the defining character of human relations including redefining individuals as consumers. Today the market is considered an instrument of ‘natural selection’ that judges not on the basis of an individual’s ability to contribute to society, but on the basis of the individual’s ability to contribute to the production of surplus value and the accumulation of capital. Neoliberal ideology claims the market ensures everyone gets what they deserve. The myth of the market as an evolutionary device serves as an explanation and a justification for, the presence of competition in all parts of social activities. For the past forty years, we believed this evolutionary process to be a source of progress, but now we realize we bought into an illusion.

The United States constitution guarantees citizens the fundamental freedoms derived from the rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Free elections are mandated every two years with replacement of the legislative branch, one-half the Senate and Congress every two years and the executive branch – president and cabinet – every four years. Americans believe their republic is the best system in the world and turn out to elect candidates who they believe will best protect their values. There are gray areas the laws of the constitution do not cover. The first institution to suffer is the House of Representatives as Republican Governors developed a systematic process of gerrymandering districts to ensure their candidates were elected. Voter restrictions represent ongoing efforts to disenfranchise poor people who tend to vote for Democrats. The Supreme Court 2011 decision in favour of Citizens United opened the campaign spending floodgates allowing economic elite to control who is elected.

When President Obama became president in 2008, Republicans were complicit in a plan to block his entire agenda during his time in office. President Obama was elected on promises that included economic change, which never materialized. Since the Great Recession, more and more voters are disillusioned with the system, with the disappearance of good paying jobs as manufacturing was outsourced to lower cost labour sources, while legislators in Washington remained gridlocked and unable to introduce new policies. The 2016 election was dominated by Donald Trump who was successful in tapping into the anger of workers who felt the system no longer understood or represented their concerns. The media failed miserably at their job vetting Donald Trump during the 2016 primaries, rather they made decisions based on viewership (and money). Consequently, Trump, one of the least qualified candidates ever, won.

With Trump’s election workers who voted for him see an opportunity for change – to bring back well-paying manufacturing jobs – promised by Trump. As an outsider unencumbered by ideology, and few IOUs to the party establishment, Trump appeared poised to deliver. However, the hero of any tragedy has flaws. He is a shape shifter who gives the audience in front of him what it wants, while not sweating the details of policy. Trump’s choices for cabinet posts indicate the true direction his administration is going. The workers will be deceived; he can not make good on his promises. Maintaining the Wall Street-Washington corridor ensures wealth continues to be distributed upward. The consequences of these decisions, the poor and people on minimum wage will continue to suffer. The economic divide between the wealthy and the rest of society will continue to grow.

A real life tragic hero has appeared in America. President Trump aspires to help those who have fallen behind, but he has a tragic flaw in his character – extreme individualism that leads to narcissism. With narcissism, the greatest problem is profound disconnect from reality. Such a person lacks empathy and does not recognize boundaries: personal, corporate or legal. The world viewed from an emotional rather than a rational perspective allows personal feelings to override the distinction between right and wrong. With self-tolerance, such an individual tolerates errors and flaws in their actions, thus influencing decision-making that creates the chaos that can bring them down. Typically when a tragic hero falls, the events evoke feelings of pity or fear, depending on the observer.

Will there actually be catharsis in America?  No, because people are divided. The neoliberals, without anyone knowing, have penetrated and restructured the identity of workers by pitting different segments of the working-class against each other. This polarization distracts workers from the activities of the economic elite. The so-called truth the people hear are beliefs developed by the oligarchs and their proxies to perpetuate the existing power structure regardless of who is president. The American tragedy is the fact that the constitution now protects the interests of corporations, not individuals.

Cartwright, Mark. (16 March 2013) Greek Tragedy. www.ancient.eu/Greek_Tragedy/

 

 

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Searching for Truth

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) claimed all concepts are human inventions (created by common agreement to facilitate ease of communication), human beings forget this fact after inventing them, and come to believe that they are ‘true’, but, in fact, do not correspond to reality. In Nietzsche’s view there is no objective fact about what has value in itself – culture consists of beliefs developed to perpetuate a particular power structure. The system, if followed by the majority of the people, supports the interests of the dominant class. Nietzsche argued that truth is impossible – there can only be perspective and interpretation – there are no absolute and fixed truths. Truths are illusions about which one has forgotten what they are; they are lies according to which we find it necessary to live. The sole opportunity for truth and the only experience of reality, Nietzsche claimed, are from an individual’s perspective within life.

Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937) developed the concept of cultural hegemony – whereby the ruling class of a capitalist society coerced the working class to adopt its values in maintaining the State. Gramsci developed the theory to explain why workers in industrialized countries in Europe had not risen up in revolt against the capitalist system as predicted by Marx. He claimed society is manipulated and controlled as a direct consequence of ‘false consciousness’ and the creation of values and life choices that are to be followed. In advanced industrial societies, hegemonic cultural tools such as compulsory schooling, mass media, and popular culture indoctrinate the workers. Gramsci described cultural hegemony as a form of thought control by the dominant economic and ruling elite that permeated throughout society of an entire system of values, attitudes, beliefs and morality. He warned of the necessary struggle, “To tell the truth is revolutionary.”

The Information Age began in 1989 along with the fall of the Berlin Wall. Telecommunications, computers and the Internet allowed instantaneous communication, notwithstanding the vast geographic difference that separated jurisdictions. These high-speed technologies allowed the cross-border flow of commodities with great efficiency. Ronald Reagan had been president for two terms and neoliberal capitalism had become established. The fabrication of trickle down economics provided the opportunity to dismantle the gains of the New Deal. It justified slashing funds for welfare programs to support a pro-growth agenda claiming centralized planning of big government doesn’t work because it creates a culture of dependency that can trap people. In 2015 Ted Cruz observed, “the top 1 percent earn a higher share of our income nationally than any year since 1928.”

Global corporations adopted disinformation programs perfected by the tobacco industry over the past fifty years. This includes the climate change denial tactics of the fossil fuel industry. These tactics include introducing manufactured uncertainty by raising doubts about even the most indisputable scientific evidence, by setting up so-called independent front organizations to publically promote its desired message. This also involved cherry picking scientific spokespeople whose interpretations of the peer-reviewed literature suggest to the media and the public that the debate amongst scientists continues, and the results are not definitive. Industries sponsor sophisticated research activities that include both funding of established research institutions, as well as funding of advocacy and ideological organizations to conduct disinformation campaigns – leaving public and law makers confused.

Media does not hesitate to create cognitive dissonance, the feeling of uncomfortable tension that occurs in the pairing of unrelated facts to create correlation. Roger Ailes and Fox News understood this all to well and regularly distort information. An example of this is President George W. Bush’s speech in which he mentioned Iraq and the September 11th attacks in the same sentence. The close proximity of the mentions is designed to create a correlation in people’s minds when the reality is different. By insinuating, people subconsciously take the idea and turn it into a possibility. This information is fed into the conservative echo chamber of which Fox News is the centerpiece, and through repetition, the correlation becomes fact based on misinformation. As a result, in 2013, two years after the terrorist’s strike against the US 70% of Americans believed that Iraq was involved. The belief in the connection persists even though there has been no proof of a link between the two.

News systems have changed greatly in the past decade. The future of publishing is being put into the hands of the few, who now control the destiny of the many. Emily Bell observes, news publishers have lost control over the distribution of their journalism, which for many readers is now “filtered through algorithms and platforms which are opaque and unpredictable”. This means that social media companies have become overwhelmingly powerful in determining what we read – and enormously profitable from the monetization of other people’s work. As Bell notes: “There is a far greater concentration of power in this respect than there has ever been in the past.”1 The Facebook app, ‘Paper’ tracks the news you’re interested in and gives you more of that and less of everything else, never burdening you with contradictory information or telling you anything new.

George Orwell’s novel, 1984, written after the Second World War, introduced a concept of reality control that the population could be controlled and manipulated merely through the alteration of everyday language and thought. Orwell’s prophesy in his novel was the appearance of a state in which the truth does not exist; it is merely what ‘big brother’ says it is. Rather than Big Brother watching, today we have multiple big brothers in the form of huge Internet companies such as Google, Facebook and LinkedIn, which log every keystroke. Hossein Derakhshan, observes, the “diversity that the World Wide Web had originally envisioned” has given way to “the centralisation of information” inside a select few social networks – and the end result is “making us all less powerful in relation to government and corporations”.When it comes to the Internet, Amazon, Netflix and Pandora use complex algorithms to make recommendations based on what similar people like, and Facebook and Google use them to cull pertinent information from personal emails and Internet searches in order to provide unsolicited user-specific advertising.

The increasing prevalence of this approach suggests that we are in the midst of a fundamental change in the values of journalism – a consumerist shift. Instead of strengthening social bonds, or creating an informed public, or the idea of news as a civic good, a democratic necessity, it creates gangs, which spread instant falsehoods that fit their views, reinforcing each other’s beliefs, driving each other deeper into shared opinions, rather than established facts. In the digital age, it is easier than ever to publish false information, which is quickly shared and taken to be true – as we often see in emergency situations, when news is breaking in real time. The influence of false information on consequences has become apparent in recent elections in the UK and America.

When a fact begins to resemble whatever you feel is true, it becomes very difficult for anyone to tell the difference between facts that are true and ‘facts’ that are not. During Brexit the Leave campaign was well aware of this – and took full advantage, safe in the knowledge that the Advertising Standards Authority has no power to police political claims. A few days after the vote, Ukip’s leaders informed the Guardian that they knew all along that facts would not win the day. Their plan was to take ‘an American-style media approach’. Two political slogans or lies incorporated into the campaign: an extra £350million a week would be spent on the National Health Service if the UK backed a Brexit vote, and it would address concerns over the level of immigration that was threatening social and national identity. What is common to these two reasons is that both involve the diminishing status of truth.

During the 2016 US election style was more important than content. The Internet proved to be a barrier to new ideas – if you’re a hardcore liberal Democrat, for instance, Google shows you news from blue-leaning states. If you’re a conservative Republican, then you get everything that’s slanted that way. In this manner, the Internet became a series of tunnels of misinformation. The algorithm-induced information echo chambers allowed the FSB and FBI to independently undermine one of the candidates in the 2016 US presidential election. The Evangelicals’ mini bubble filtered out Donald Trump’s character flaws and religious beliefs, rather focused on the fact he could deliver conservative judges to the Supreme Court. While it was workers’ fear of neoliberal economics that allowed Donald Trump to win, the economic elite’s interests remain well represented in his cabinet, so the power of the oligarchs continues unabated.

When searching for truth, we must realize the Internet search algorithms are not arbiters of the truth. In fact, there is no such thing as an unbiased news site. This does not mean that there are no truths. Most skeptics believe that by continuously questioning our knowledge, the source thereof, and what is held as “truth,” we can greatly reduce the risk of being deceived. However, the oligarchs and their proxies take advantage of the structure of the Internet to control information that serves the interest of financial capital and globalized elites in the redistribution of wealth upward. We must be ever more cognizant of the the social media subtleties that impact us. It is more important than ever to actively seek out alternative views to sense-check our understanding of truth. In addition, progressives must buy subscriptions to printed press in order to ensure the quality of newspapers. Otherwise, the result is a less well-informed public. Today, truth involves not only a search, but also a struggle.

1 Viner, Catherine. (12 July 2016) How technology disrupted the truth. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2016/jul/12/how-technology-disrupted-the-truth

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Choices Have Consequences

Brett Stevens observes, most people see the world in binary categories. They believe that there is either an inherent moral good that we must all obey, or there are no rules and life is pointless anarchy. Nihilism argues for a middle path: we lack inherent order, but are defined by our choices, which means that we must start making smarter choices by understanding the reality in which we live more than the human social reality which we have used to replace it in our minds. Searching for a level of thought underneath the self-serving methods of politics and economics, the philosophy of nihilism approaches thought at its most basic level and highest degree of abstraction. It counters the self-deception of groupthink – individuals not considering all the alternatives, as they desire unanimity at the expense of quality decisions. Members believe in the rightness of their cause and therefore ignore the ethical or moral consequences of their decisions.1

While many rail against nihilism as the death of culture and religion, the philosophy itself encourages a consequentialist, reality-based outlook that forms the basis for moral choice. Unlike the control-oriented systems of thought that form the basis of contemporary society, nihilism reverts the crux of moral thinking to the relationship between the individual and the effects of that individual’s actions in reality. As a direct consequence of nihilism, man is forced to see reality for what it is: a random, irrational, and chaotic existence in which our role is infinitesimal. Nihilistic despair occurs upon finding something that once had value or meaning being not as good as you believed. Not surprisingly this happened when Wall Street protesters called out the ruling class of elites by connecting the dots between corporate and political power. Now many realize the economic system is rigged for the very few while the majority continue to fall further behind.

Political nihilism is a world-view that’s rational, logical, empirical, scientific and devoid of pointless, extraneous emotion. It’s the logical psyche that distills everything down into what is known, what can be known and what can’t be known. However, truth is simply the name given to the point of view of the people who have the power to enforce their point of view. Whatever man can make work in order to achieve his purposes becomes the truth in the system. There is no objective reality behind truth – different perspectives produce different truths. Nihilism is a consequence of the personal realization that values previously assumed inviolate are wholly false and unworkable. And while an acceptance of nihilism immediately returns a perspective of utter futility for life and universal existence, this perspective is not the final resolution. Actually existence has even more purpose now because a proper perspective has been attained and a reason is finally clear – the complete destruction of the debasing, ideologically derived moral order.2

The philosopher Friedrich W. Nietzsche claimed there was no objective fact about what has value in itself – culture consisted of beliefs developed to perpetuate a particular power structure. The system, if followed by the majority of the people, supports the interests of the dominant class, and facts cannot be separated from interpretations. Objectivity is beyond human capability because the mind cannot know ‘truth’ in an objective sense. Minds are useful, but according to Nietzsche invariably flawed because they cannot separate facts from human error and moral values, which inevitably are subjective. If all perspectives are subjective and hence flawed, what perspective is society to follow? Nietzsche’s perspective was that no source of knowledge was authoritative. Sources of knowledge won ascendancy based on which ones were backed by holders of power. Thus, perceived truth depended on power. Real truth, if it existed, was not ideology that cannot be challenged, but was relative and subjective. It depends on circumstances.

For Nietzsche, the values (culture and traditions) of the dominant society (with an ideology consistent with its interests) were oppressing the emergence of a new generation of stronger individuals and a more vigorous society and culture. Darwin effectively showed that searching for a true definition of species was not only futile but unnecessary since the definition of a species is something temporary, something which will change over time, without any permanent, lasting and stable reality. Nietzsche strived through his philosophical work to do the same for cultural values. He substituted Darwin’s adaptive fitness with creative power – and called for a ‘re-evaluation of all values.’ Ideas should change as soon as information and input changes. Recognition that moral values are subjective and that rights can only be interpreted in their social context frees the observer to break from the bondage of false views to see society more clearly, if still subjectively.

Nietzsche considered nihilism a transitional stage that accompanies human development. It arises from frustration and weariness. When people feel alienated from values, and have lost the foundation of their value system but have not replaced it with anything, then they become nihilists. Nietzsche saw that the old values and old morality simply didn’t have the same power that they once did. He believed that there was no longer any real substance to traditional social, political, moral, and religious values, and science does not introduce a new set of values to replace the Christian values it displaces. Nietzsche rightly foresaw that people need to identify some source of meaning and value in their lives, and if they could not find it in science or society, they would turn to aggressive nationalism and other such salves as xenophobia. If there is a morality in the nihilist world, it is the unceasing awareness of consequences.

Political nihilism involves the destruction of illusions, the negation of mythology and the removal of the elite who profit from the existing propaganda of artificial confusion. Neoliberals created the illusion cutting taxes for the rich will actually create well paying jobs for the rest of society. By linking the welfare of working-class Americans directly to the prosperity of the rich, the neoliberals protect the insulated interests of corporations and the wealthy without the fear of backlash. In the 21st century the myth of the market hinges on the illusion of a supposedly natural order in the economic realm. However, in this so-called evolutionary environment of the market the income gap between the wealthy and the rest of society continues to grow. These illusions must be destroyed with truth – tax cuts for the rich do not create well-paying jobs for the middle class and there is no justification for the presence of competition in all parts of social activities.

Donald Trump employed populist nihilism during the 2016 presidential campaign attracting voters disillusioned with the establishment choices. The opportunity was created as the ideology of the dominant society, fundamental neoliberal economics, alienated workers from values such as the American dream. Neither ideology nor facts inform Trump’s decision making, so he could easily adopt political nihilism. What do his choices for cabinet inform us? Steve Mnuchin, an ex-Goldman Sachs partner and hedge-fund manager, was appointed to Department of Treasury; Wilbur Ross, a billionaire investor, was appointed to Department of Commerce. These appointments will ensure the Wall Street-Washington corridor continues to function. These choices make certain the economic elite’s interests will be looked after. “Sometimes people don’t want to hear the truth because they don’t want their illusions destroyed,” observed Friedrich Nietzsche.

Political nihilism is a branch of nihilism that follows the characteristic nihilist’s rejection of non-rationalized or non-proven assertions. As such, nihilism does not support equality, however neither does neoliberal capitalism. Nihilism is not about disregard for the law, rather consists in rejection of all value judgements. Nihilism views rights as irrelevant because it’s the underlying structures of morality and the roots of truth, myth and collective delusions that dictate significance. Morality and ethics, a product of the dominant class, laced with hypocrisy and abuse are warped into illusory forces. In this system, with no absolute truth, individuals must evaluate one moral position in relation to other moral positions. Winston Churchill observed, “A man does what he must – in spite of personal consequences, in spite of obstacles and dangers and pressures – and that is the basis of all human morality.”

The present system is fundamentally broken; it is necessary to reject the dogma of the past. What will drive change is a doctrine of skepticism coupled with questioning that refutes the ideology, sacred values and principles that maintain neoliberal ideology along with the supporting social and economic institutions based on false beliefs. In this manner new values appear to replace the old. The new system will be configured for a biologically-based existence. This process would reject arbitrary values in favor of cause and effect, with a sustainable mental and physical environment that promotes independent thinking and critical expression. We must make smart choices – and choices have consequences – replacing the existing corrupt political, economic and social systems with a more sustainable environment in order to achieve the goal of making good decisions on how we use our world and the things in it, for all our benefit.

1 A Philosophy Based In Nothingness And Eternity – A Call to Action. (06 Sept 2016) http://www.nihil.org/nihilism/nihilist-book-nihilism-a-philosophy-based-in-nothingness-and-eternity-released

2 Nihilism Defined. http://www.counterorder.com/nihilism.html

 

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